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Ajmaline Gymnemic acids
Andrographolide Rebaudioside A and Stevioside
Atropine Reserpine
Berberine Somniferine
Curcumin Yohimbine
 
Ajmaline
 

Plant source
Rauwolfia Serpentina

Structure
File:Ajmaline structure.svg
Activities
Ajmaline is a class Ia antiarrhythmic agent. Reduce blood pressure, depresses activity of central nervous system and acts as a hypnotic.

 

 

Andrographolide
 

Plant source
Andrographis Paniculata

Andrographolide is a labdane diterpenoid that is the main bioactive component of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata. Andrographolide is an extremely bitter substance extracted from the stem and leaves of the andrographis paniculata, which is grown for medicinal purposes in China and India. Andrographolide has been shown to be effective against certain cancers and is an effective purgative.

Structure

 

 

 

 

 
Activities
liver-protective, cure of torbid liver, anti-biotic, anti-viral, anti-parasitic and immune system, viral hepatitis, antihepatotoxic, antibiotic, antimalarial, antihepatitic, antithrombogenic, antiinflammatory, anti-snake venom, and antipyretic properties.

 

 

Atropine
 

Plant source
Atropa Belladonna

Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). It is a secondary metabolite of these plants and serves as a drug with a wide variety of effects. It is a competitive antagonist for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. It is classified as an anticholinergic drug Atropine is a core medicine in the World Health Organization's "Essential Drugs List", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system.

Physiological effects and uses
In general, atropine lowers the parasympathetic activity of all muscles and glands regulated by the parasympathetic nervous system.

Ophthalmic use
Topical atropine is used as a cycloplegic, to temporarily paralyze the accommodation reflex, and as a mydriatic, to dilate the pupils.

Resuscitation
Injections of atropine are used in the treatment of bradycardia (an extremely low heart rate), asystole and pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in cardiac arrest.

Secretions and bronchoconstriction
Atropine's action on the parasympathetic nervous system inhibits salivary, sweat, and mucus glands.

Treatment for organophosphate poisoning
Atropine is not an actual antidote for organophosphate poisoning. However, by blocking the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, atropine also serves as a treatment for poisoning by organophosphate insecticides and nerve gases

Optical penalisation
In refractive and accommodative amblyopia, when occlusion is not appropriate sometimes atropine is given to induce blur in the good eye.

Structure

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Activities
Narcotic, antidote, analgesic, hallucinogenic, sedative, it is a competitive antagonist for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

 

 

Berberine
 

Plant source
Tinospora Cordifolia

Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of isoquinoline alkaloids. It is also found in Tinospora Cordifolia usually in the roots, rhizomes, stems, and bark. Berberine is strongly yellow colored, which is why in earlier times berberis species were used to dye wool, leather and wood. Wool is still today dyed with berberine in Northern India. Under ultraviolet light, berberine shows a strong yellow fluorescence. Because of this it is used in histology for staining heparin in mast cells. As a natural dye berberin has a Color Index (CI) of 75160.

Structure

Activities
Anti-inflammatory treats Infectious diarrhea, Heart failure, Thrombocytopenia, Glaucoma, Parasitic infection, H. pylori infection, Hypercholesterolemia, Chloroquine-resistant malaria, Diabetes, and Trachoma.

 

 

Curcumin
 

Plant source
Curcuma Longa

Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). The other two curcuminoids are desmethoxycurcumin and bis-desmethoxycurcumin. The curcuminoids are polyphenols and are responsible for the yellow color of turmeric.

Potential medical uses
Turmeric has been used historically as a component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine since 1900 BC to treat a wide variety of ailments. Research in the latter half of the 20th century has identified curcumin as responsible for most of the biological activity of turmeric. In vitro and animal studies have suggested a wide range of potential therapeutic or preventive effects associated with curcumin. At present, these effects have not been confirmed in humans. However, as of 2008, numerous clinical trials in humans were underway, studying the effect of curcumin on various diseases including multiple myeloma, pancreatic cancer, myelodysplastic syndromes, colon cancer, psoriasis, and Alzheimer's disease.
In vitro and animal studies have suggested that curcumin may have antitumor, antioxidant, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, anti-ischemic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Anti-inflammatory properties may be due to inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis. In addition it may be effective in treating malaria, prevention of cervical cancer, and may interfere with the replication of the HIV virus.

Structure

Activities
Arthritic pain, anti-inflammatory, to treat digestive disorders, osteoarthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer and liver problems and for the treatment of skin diseases and wound healing, anti-tumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant.

 

 

Gymnemic acids
 

Plant
Gymnema Sylvestre

Gymnemic acids are glycosides isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae). Gymnemic acids like ziziphin and hodulcine are anti-sweet compounds, or sweetness inhibitors. After chewing the leaves, solutions sweetened with sucrose taste like water.
More than 20 homologues of gymnemic acid are found in the leaves. Gymnemic acid 1 has the highest anti-sweet properties. It suppresses the sweetness of most of the sweeteners including intense artificial sweeteners such as aspartame and natural sweeteners such as thaumatin, a sweet protein. The anti-sweet activity is reversible, but sweetness recovery on the tongue can take more than 10 minutes.

Structure

File:Structure of Gymnemic acid I.png

Activities
Both types of Diabetes, anti-inflammatory, liver tonic. It is useful in hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, Gymnemic acids have antidiabetic, antisweetener and anti-inflammatory activities, and fruits-It has Insulin-sensitizing and hypolipidemic property, use in the treatment of type-2 diabetes

 

 

Rebaudioside A and Stevioside
 

Plant source
Stevia Rebaudia`na

The steviol glycosides are responsible for the sweet taste of the leaves of the stevia plant (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni). These compounds range in sweetness from 40 to 300 times sweeter than sucrose. They are heat-stable, pH-stable, and do not ferment. They also do not induce a glycemic response when ingested, making them attractive as natural sweeteners to diabetics and others on carbohydrate-controlled diets

Activities
Zero calorie natural sweetener, hypoglycemic, cardiotonic, obesity, diabetes.

 

 

Reserpine
 

Plant source
Rauwolfia Serpentina
Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug that has been used for the control of high blood pressure and for the relief of psychotic symptoms, although because of the development of better drugs for these purposes and because of its numerous side-effects, it is rarely used today. The antihypertensive actions of reserpine are a result of its ability to deplete catecholamines (among the others) from peripheral sympathetic nerve endings. These substances are normally involved in controlling heart rate, force of cardiac contraction and peripheral resistance.
Reserpine depletion of monoamine neurotransmitters in the synapses is often cited as evidence to the theory that depletion of the neurotransmitters causes subsequent depression in humans. Moreover, reserpine has a peripheral action in many parts of the body, resulting in a preponderance of the cholinergic part of the nervous system (GI tract, smooth muscles vessels).
Structure

File:Reserpine.png

Activities
Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug that has been used for the control of high blood pressure and for the relief of psychotic symptoms.

 

 

Somniferine
 

Plant source
Withania Somnifera

Pharmacological effects
Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera) is reported to have anti-carcinogenic effects in animal and cell cultures by decreasing the expression of nuclear factor kappa-B, suppressing intercellular tumor necrosis factor, and enhancing apoptotic signaling in cancerous cell lines.

Structure
Full-size image

Activities
Sedative, rheumatism, leprosy and arthritis, Somniferine is a hypnotic, while scopoletin is a smooth muscle relaxant in guinea pigs

 

 

Yohimbine
 

Plant source
Rauwolfia Serpentina

Yohimbine is an alkaloid with stimulant and aphrodisiac effects found naturally in Pausinystalia yohimbe (Yohimbe). It is also found naturally in Rauwolfia serpentina (Indian Snakeroot), along with several other active alkaloids. Yohimbine has been used as both an over-the-counter dietary supplement in herbal extract form and prescription medicine in pure form for the treatment of sexual dysfunction.

Structure

File:Yohimbine structure.svg

Activities
Yohimbine is an alkaloid with stimulant and aphrodisiac

 

 

   
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